Language Use in Education and Ethnic Conflict and Challenges amidst competing Linguistic allegiances: The case of the Lundas and Luvales in Zambesi District, Zambia

In Zambia, the debate surrounding whether or not it is much more salutary to instruct children in their first language (L1) or mother tongue in the early stages of their academic development appears to have subsided in the last two decades, in favour of its proponents. Undoubtedly, this more valorizing and somewhat conflict-mitigating view of African languages is due, in no small measure, to the establishment of the African Academy of Languages (ACALAN) in Bamako, Mali, in 2001 under the theme, “African Languages for a Peaceful, Prosperous and Integrated Africa”. Scholars have consistently challenged the traditional practice by most African states of adopting ex-colonial languages as a medium of instruction in schools. This is because research has shown that native speakers forced to learn in a foreign language tend to lag behind in their academic development as they attempt to first learn the new (imposed) language. Based on this realisation, in 2013, Zambia set trends among many African countries by adopting a policy of teaching in local languages at lower grade levels (grades 1-4). This policy is reported to be working remarkably well in most parts of the country. For example, the May 2016 Joint Annual Review (JAR) by the Ministry of General Education and Cooperating Partners, covering a sample of 40 schools across the country, revealed a significant increase in test scores, literacy and numeracy, compared to the last two years before adoption of the policy. Further research, however, has also shown that implementation of this commendable policy has come with its own linguistic challenges in Zambezi District, Zambia. Zambezi District has suffered a long-standing conflict over language use between the Lunda and the Luvale ethnic communities, dating back to pre-colonial times. This article seeks to highlight the conflicts and challenges faced in the implementation of the local language policy in education in Zambezi District among the Lundas and the Luvales. In addition, it offers recommendations that might help mitigate and/or manage the prevailing ethnic conflict induced by this policy-driven use of language in education.

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Chipo Kasoma, Lisa Kwaleyela and Gosnell L. Yorke


Causes and consequences of drug abuse among adolescent 

Drugs are commonly defined as chemical substances capable of altering the physical and psychological functions of the body. Drugs are also seen as any chemical substance that alters mood perception to the apparent detriment of the society. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to drug abuse because of stress and problems, some of which according to psychologists include need for love and acceptance, self identity and peer influence. Availability of drugs, family history of substance abuse, low self esteem, lack of parental
involvement/supervision, are other factors that predispose teenagers to drug abuse.

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Alfred Afamefuna Ezejiegwu.





Globalization as a Catalyst for the growth of Western Education in Africa: its Effects on Traditional Education 

Before the sub-Saharan Africa and the American continent was discovered by the European explorers the known world was Europe, parts of Asia and parts of northern and eastern Africa. At that time globalization had already started but in a low scale. There had been contacts, trade and exchange of ideas cultures and religion among the tribes of Europe, parts of Asia and parts of northern and eastern Africa. With the discovery of the American continent and the sub-Saharan Africa a new phase of globalization kick-started, European culture, religion and world view where imported into the newly found territories through the use of education. The new form of education presented to Africans was designed to make them detest their cultural heritage; religion and world view and accept the foreign way of life
without questioning. This situation coupled with the unfortunate historical events -slave trade and colonialism- made the ordinary African see himself as inferior to the European invaders. The implications are that the traditional education of the native African is relegated to the background. The product of education now becomes Africans who rejects African religion, culture and world view and force themselves to be Europeans in ideas and world view while remaining Africans in blood and colour.

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Ughaerumba Ugo



Comparative Analysis on Political Culture and Political Socialization in Tanzania and South Africa

This research is purely on comparative analysis on political culture and political socialization both in Tanzania and South Africa. On this work the researcher looked at reasons/factors responsible for the continued existence of different society in general and as related to Tanzania and South Africa in particular. The similarities and differences of the two countries were exhaustively discussed. In carrying out the findings, the researcher employed
archival/theoretical method of investigation by consulting various relevant materials. Finally, the researcher was able to conclude that the importance of religion and ethnicity cannot be overemphasized in Tanzanian political culture and political socialization while apartheid, centralization of political power and political boycott determines the culture and socialization of political terrains of South Africa.

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Adisa, Olufemi Peniel



The extent of adjustment of children in families with biological and adopted children 

This study investigated the extent of adjustment of children in families with biological and adopted children. The purpose of the study is to ascertain the children’s adjustment from the two families. The descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised about 1,883,952 children in the area. The sample comprised 352 children selected through purposive sampling technique. A researcher developed questionnaire duly validated by experts was used in data collection. The reliability coefficient of 0.84 was found using Cronbach Alpha. The researcher administered the instrument. Mean ratings and t-test were used in data analysis. Findings indicate that both children in biological and adopted families perceived a low extent of adjustment in their families. It was therefore recommended that adoptive parents should make personal efforts to improve their family adjustments in order to help the children adjust well in their families.

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Alfred Afamefuna Ezejiegwu.



Determination of Crop Coefficients of Three Varieties of Tomatoes 

The careful planning of water use is of primary importance in any irrigation system, as water applied at wrong time or in excess of what is needed only become a waste and additional overall cost to farmers. The Crop coefficient and crop water use of three varieties of tomatoes (cherry, Roma and Jubilee) are determined in this study. Tomatoes was planted at the Demonstration farm of Kwara State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oyun, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria between the months of December 2011 and April 2012. The crop water use was determined by water budget method while, the reference evapotranspiration was estimated using Blaney-Criddle model. The result shown that Cherry tomato among other varieties has the highest crop evapotranspiration with crop coefficient of 1.56. The mean monthly reference evapotranspiration value for the three varieties of tomatoes is 12.82mm/day.
Therefore, accurate prediction of crop water use is the key to develop efficient irrigation management practices making it imperative to develop crop coefficient (Kc) for a specific crop.

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Dauda K.A. and Olayaki-Luqman, M.



Teacher Education and Character Development of Trainee Teachers: The Challenges and Solutions 

This study investigated the efficacy of teacher education for character development, its challenges and solutions. In doing this the researcher asked three questions. The population of the study comprised one hundred and fifty teachers (lecturers) and student-teachers. A structured questionnaire of thirty-seven (37) items titled “Teacher Education and Character Development Challenges Questionnaire” (TECEDCQ) was used to collect data. The reliability and validity of the instrument were established. The internal consistency measure of reliability was computed for the instrument using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha Formulae and internal consistency rating of .88 was obtained. Data collected in answer to the research questions was analysed using Mean statistics. Findings showed that character development there justifiable ways to achieve character development in teacher education, such as taking students through situations that will expose them to judging another person who is in a grave situation; Create a situation where students can discuss their thought, feelings and beliefs freely; ask students hypothetical questions e.g. suppose a friend begged you to help him cheat in a test what would you do; Lead students into engaging in establishing group goals, decide on rules of conduct , plan activities and solve problems; organise everything in the school around the development of relationship between and among students, staff and community etc the study therefore recommend among others that a board should be constituted to evaluate the teachers in teacher training institutes character wise (most secretly of course). This will help the teachers shelve their unacceptable characters and the learners will gain.

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Orakwue Ifeoma .C.,



The spatial dimension of unemployment in Zimbabwe 

Zimbabwe currently faces a severe problem of unemployment. The challenges are being experienced in all parts of the country and in all sectors of the economy from primary right to the quaternary sector. Added to this is the problem of regional inequalities in the levels of unemployment. The paper examines spatial patterns of unemployment in Zimbabwe. Data on the levels of unemployment was collected from Zimbabwe National Statistical Agency (ZIMSTAT) (2014) published reports of the 2012 population census. Using quartiles, the country was demarcated into four regions of unemployment zones based on the rate of unemployment in the administrative districts. It emerged from the research that overall, the level of unemployment in Zimbabwe is very high and in addition, there is severe inequality in the levels of unemployment across the administrative districts in the country.

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Dr Evans Chazireni



Adolescent Social Development implications for teaching and learning 

Adolescence is the life stage that bridges childhood and adulthood. Adolescents face a range of developmental issues. During the transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood the individual is undergoing rapid social development. During this time, the adolescent’s peer group becomes increasingly important as a source of information, experience and support. Adolescents strongly identify with the contemporary youth, culture and begin to push for autonomy and responsibility in resistance to parental control and authority. Peer groups provide a context for personal relationships and a sense of belonging. Adolescents who fail to pass successfully through the turbulence adolescence transitional years are prone to exhibit social behaviours that tend to be hazardous. Some of them include drug and alcohol abuse, juvenile delinquency, adolescent pregnancy, depression and eating disorders. In view of the hazards associated with adolescent’s social behaviours, it becomes pertinent for parents and other significant social role models to ensure that their adolescents begin early in life to develop specific social skills and techniques, certain social understanding and tolerance, that will enable them to satisfy their social needs and lead a wholesome social life.

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Alfred Afamefuna Ezejiegwu.



The effect of single parenting on academic pursuit and behaviour of adolescents in post primary institutions 

The study investigated the effect of single parenting on academic pursuit and behaviour of adolescents in post primary institutions. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. The sample comprised 200 respondents obtained through purposive sampling technique. Structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation were the statistical tools for data analysis. The entire questionnaire administrated to the respondents were correctly completed and used for data analysis. The study among others revealed that school dropouts, financial difficulty in training adolescents, learning a trade in place of schooling, engaging adolescents in work during school hours, sending adolescents to public schools for lack of money for training, sending adolescents out as maids due to hardship etc are the effects of single parenting on academic pursuit and behaviour of adolescents in post primary institutions. It was recommended among others, that government should introduce scholarship scheme in post primary institutions to help the adolescents who their single parents cannot afford to train them alone.

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Alfred Afamefuna Ezejiegwu.



Soil contamination due to heavy metal within automobile workshop clusters along Mariere by T-junction (α) and Orubor by Prof. Ebie (β) Agbor, Delta State. Nigeria 

The concentration levels of heavy metals within two automobile clusters coded Alpha ( and Beta (β) respectively in Agbor metropolis are presented. Heavy metal analysis of the soils in the two clusters showed the presence of cu, mn, Ni, Zn, cd, Pb, and Fe in abundance trend of Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > cd > Ni > cu. Also, the concentration levels of the soils were above the control values except for cd at β cluster. Cadium at β cluster represented a contamination hazards which requires some remedial action.

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Morka, J.C, Obiwulu, Esther, Ataine, Tessy and Anthony, D.C



Analysis of a green engine 

The green engine is one of the most interesting discoveries of the new millennium. It has got some unique features
that were used for the first time in the making of engines. This engine is a pistonless one with features like
sequential variable compression ratio, direct air intake, direct fuel injection, Multi-fuel usage etc. the efficiency of
this engine is high when compared to the contemporary engines and also the exhaust emissions are near zero.

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Engr. Nworie Nobert



Analysis of a designed laboratory culture incubator 

In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside. Incubators are essential for a lot of experimental work in cell biology, microbiology and molecular biology and are used to culture both bacterial as well as eukaryotic cells. Louis Pasteur used the small opening underneath his staircase as an incubator. Incubators are also used in the poultry industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to control both temperature and humidity. Various brands of incubators are commercially available to breeders. This work covers the design of a typical incubator for microbiological cultures.

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Engr Nworie Nobert



Creating Deviance: The Issue of Kidnapping in Nigeria 

The concept of kidnapping and the worrisome challenges, effects and eventual consequences it portends to any growing economy like Nigeria and the world over has been a subject matter of serious concern to both policy makers, government, political leaders as well as all stakeholders interested in the socio-economic advancement of any given nation. Most literature attributes its pervasiveness to unemployment, poverty, illiteracy and other problems besetting mankind. On this premise, we formed the basis for this study. Extant literature were consulted and overhauled all aimed at getting to a concise critique of this social scourge/malady. The researchers explored the subject matter as it concerns Nigeria where kidnapping has dramatically become an unavoidable source of livelihood/organized business to a lot of people particularly the teeming youth. The paper traced the root of kidnapping in Nigeria to the clamor for oil resource control by the aborigines of the oil producing Niger Delta region who resorted to hostage taking, hijacking and kidnapping of oil workers to challenge government’s hegemonic control over oil resources. Robert K. Merton’s Strain Theory was employed as a theoretical framework to interrogate how contradictions within Nigeria’s social structure and cultural values create deviance. At the end, various recommendations were advanced to aid policy makers, the government and concerned institutions on possible ways of bringing this social problem to its minimal level, one of which is that government at all levels should formulate and effectively implement policies and strategies aimed at addressing the root causes of kidnapping such as poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation and political and economic marginalization.

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Chigoziri U. Jeribe and Emmanuel Nlemchukwu C.



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